Nucypher Ethereum Contracts

Contract Listing

  • NuCypherToken ERC20 token contract

  • MinersEscrow Holds Ursula’s stake, stores information about Ursula’s activity, and assigns a reward for participating in the NuCypher network. (The Issuer contract is part of the MinersEscrow)

  • PolicyManager Holds a policy’s fee and distributes fee by periods

  • MiningAdjudicator Manages the slashing protocol

  • Upgradeable Base contract for upgrading

  • Dispatcher Proxy to other contracts and provides upgrading of the MinersEscrow, PolicyManager and MiningAdjudicator contracts

  • UserEscrow Locks tokens for predetermined time. Tokens will be unlocked after specified time and all tokens can be used as stake in the MinersEscrow contract

Deployment Procedure

  1. Deploy NuCypherToken with all future supply tokens

  2. Deploy MinersEscrow with a dispatcher targeting it

  3. Deploy PolicyManager with its own dispatcher, also targeting it

  4. Deploy MiningAdjudicator with a dispatcher

  5. Transfer reward tokens to the MinersEscrow contract. These tokens are future mining rewards and initial allocations

  6. Run the initialize() method to initialize the MinersEscrow contract

  7. Set the address of the PolicyManager contract in the MinersEscrow by using the setPolicyManager(address)

  8. Pre-deposit tokens to the MinersEscrow if necessary:

    • Approve the transfer tokens for the MinersEscrow contract using the approve(address, uint) method. The parameters are the address of MinersEscrow and the amount of tokens for a miner or group of miners;

    • Deposit tokens to the MinersEscrow contract using the preDeposit(address[], uint[], uint[]) method. The parameters are the addresses of the miners, the amount of tokens for each miner, and the number of periods during which tokens will be locked for each miner

  9. Deploy UserEscrowProxy with UserEscrowLibraryLinker targeting it

  10. Pre-deposit tokens to the UserEscrow and, if necessary:

    • Create new instance of the UserEscrow contract

    • Transfer ownership of the instance of the UserEscrow contract to the user

    • Approve the transfer of tokens for the UserEscrow

    • Deposit tokens by the initialDeposit(uint256, uint256) method

Alice’s Contract Interaction

Alice Authors a Blockchain Policy

Alice uses a network of Ursula miners to deploy policies. In order to take advantage of the network, Alice chooses miners and deploys policies with fees for those miners. Alice can choose miners by herself (“handpicked”) or by using MinersEscrow.sample(uint256[], uint16) - This is known as (“sampling”). sample parameters are:

  • The array of absolute values

  • Minimum number of periods during which tokens are locked This method will return only active miners.

In order to place the fee for a policy, Alice calls the method PolicyManager.createPolicy(bytes16, uint16, uint256, address[]), specifying the miner’s addresses, the policy ID (off-chain generation), the policy duration in periods, and the first period’s reward. Payment should be added to the transaction in ETH and the amount is firstReward * miners.length + rewardRate * periods * miners.length. The reward rate must be greater than or equal to the minimum reward for each miner in the list. The first period’s reward is not refundable, and can be zero.

Alice Revokes a Blockchain Policy

When Alice wants to revoke a policy, she calls the PolicyManager.revokePolicy(bytes16) or PolicyManager.revokeArrangement(bytes16, address). Execution of these methods results in Alice recovering all fees for future periods, and also for periods when the miners were inactive. Alice can refund ETH for any inactive periods without revoking the policy by using the method PolicyManager.refund(bytes16) or PolicyManager.refund(bytes16, address).

Ursula’s Contract Interaction

Ursula Locks Tokens

In order to become a participant of the network, a miner stakes tokens in the MinersEscrow contract. The miner allows the (mining) contract to perform a transaction using the NuCypherToken.approve(address, uint256) method (ERC20 contracts allow access delegation to another address).

After that, the miner transfers some quantity of tokens (MinersEscrow.deposit(uint256, uint16)), locking them at the same time. Alternately the NucypherToken.approveAndCall(address, uint256, bytes) method can be used. The parameters are:

  • The address of the MinersEscrow contract

  • The amount of staked tokens

  • The periods for locking (which are serialized into an array of bytes)

When staking tokens, the miner sets the number of periods the tokens will be locked, which must be no less than some minimal locking time (30 periods). In order to unlock tokens, the miner must be active during the time of locking (and confirm activity each period). Each stake is represented by the amount of tokens locked, and the stake’s duration in periods. The miner can add a new stake using MinersEscrow.deposit(uint256, uint16) or MinersEscrow.lock(uint256, uint16) methods. The miner can split stake into two parts: one with the same duration and another with an extended duration. For this purpose, the MinersEscrow.divideStake(uint256, uint256, uint16) method is used. The first parameter is used to identify the stake to divide and the last two for the extended part of the stake. When calculating locked tokens using the MinersEscrow.getLockedTokens(address, uint16) method, all stakes that are active during the specified period are summed.

Ursula Confirms Activity

In order to confirm activity every period, miners call MinersEscrow.confirmActivity() wherein activities for the next period are registered. The method MinersEscrow.confirmActivity is called every time the methods MinersEscrow.deposit(uint256, uint16) or MinersEscrow.lock(uint256, uint16) is called. The miner gets a reward for every confirmed period.

Ursula Generates Staking Rewards

After the period of activity has passed, the miner may call MinersEscrow.mint() method which computes and transfers tokens to the miner’s account. Also note that calls to MinersEscrow.lock(uint256, uint16) and MinersEscrow.confirmActivity() are included the MinersEscrow.mint() method.

The reward value depends on the fraction of locked tokens for the period (only those who confirmed activity are accounted for). Also, the reward depends on the number of periods during which the tokens will be locked: if the tokens will be locked for half a year, the coefficient is 1.5. The minimum coefficient is 1 (when tokens will get unlocked in the next period), and the maximum is 2 (when the time is 1 year or more). The reward is calculated separately for each stake that is active during the mining period and all rewards are summed up. The order of calling mint by miners (e.g. who calls first, second etc) doesn’t matter. Miners can claim their rewards by using the withdraw(uint256) method. Only non-locked tokens can be withdrawn.

Ursula Generates Policy Rewards

Also the miner gets rewards for policies deployed. Computation of a policy reward happens every time mint() is called by the updateReward(address, uint16) method. In order to take the reward, the miner needs to call method withdraw() of the contract PolicyManager. The miner can set a minimum reward rate for a policy. For that, the miner should call the setMinRewardRate(uint256) method.

NuCypher Partner Ursula Staking

Some users will have locked but not staked tokens. In that case, an instance of the UserEscrow contract will hold their tokens (method initialDeposit(uint256, uint256)). All tokens will be unlocked after a specified time and the user can retrieve them using the withdraw(uint256) method. When the user wants to become a miner - he uses the UserEscrow contract as a proxy for the MinersEscrow and PolicyManager contracts.